Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) is a science devoted to the understanding and improvement of human behaviour
Applied Behaviour Analysis
A preferred method that has been scientifically proven to be effective in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA). ABA is an evidence-based, intensive education therapy for Autism Spectrum Disordered children.
According to John Watson’s findings in 1913, a proper subject matter for psychology is the observable behaviour. Based on this finding, John stated that environmental events control all behaviour, and as result, he laid out the stimulus-response psychology which began the behaviourism movement. Later, the distinction amid respondent conditioning by Ivan Pavlon and operant conditioning, in which behaviour consequence regulates the future behaviour occurrence, was clarified by B.F. Skinner.
The basic behaviour principles, which included schedule of reinforcement, shaping, prompting, fading, reinforcement and many others, were outlined by Skinner and other researchers. The pure science of behaviour analysis is contained in these principles. Importantly, a distinction should be made that this is pure science and not applied science. Studying any science in both applied and pure ways gives a clear distinction between pure and applied science. The practice of utilizing the principles of pure science of behaviour analysis to teach is referred to as “Applied Behaviour Analysis”. This is clear indication that the principles utilized to give a description on how behaviour is measurable, observable, lawful, and impacts on the environment have been adapted into the approaches of teaching based on those principles.
Ivar Lovaas, in the 1960s, started working on what in the future would be described in The Me Book, which explained his science teaching application. Besides, stating down a curriculum of programs and a teaching sequence for them, Ivar discussed the way in which they should be taught. Applied behaviour analysis was the means by which these skills were taught, and Lovaas’ way was utilized in the application of the science. Therefore, a number of individuals discussing ABA mean that they use Lovaas’ application of the science of behaviour analysis to teach.
Lovaas' long-in-coming follow-up to The ME Book, Teaching Individuals with Developmental Deferrals: Just currently, basic intervention technique, which gives a description on how basic programming has evolved over the past few years has become available. Lovaas’ initial application provides a description on how to first teach a target separately, followed by with one and two distracters, then using the same way to teach another, and finally putting the two into a random rotation. More emphasis was also placed on sitting still, eye contact, table-time and intensity by Lovaas.
Besides fleshing out operant conditioning, Skinner scrutinized language functions and presented his scrutiny in the 1957 book of verbal behaviour. This provided a description language in the terms of its functions majorly intraverbals, tacts, echoics and mands. A number of researchers including; James Partington, Mark Sunberg, Vince Carbone and Jack Michael, applied behaviour analysis, and studied pure scientific analysis of Skinners. These researchers applied the pure science, which gives a description of applied verbal behaviour. This is still applied behaviour analysis today, though the focus is on the student’s verbal behaviour.
In addition to academic, social and self-help skills, ABA assists the children to develop behavioural skills. All these skills are necessary to cope with daily life challenges and interact with others. ABA is in the form of a highly organized program designed to attain each child’s individual requirement, while creating basics for life-long learning.
A considerable number of pre-school kids with ASD is likely to attain normal intellectual and educational function if there is early intervention and treatment. Moreover, they can become indistinguishable from their peers. Based on the research, to attain long-term benefit, intensive therapy is needed for not less than 15-20 hours per week.
There are a lot of studies have showed that many children with autism and related disorders experience significant improvements in learning, communication and facilitate achievement when they engage in high-quality ABA programs. Especially some pre-schoolers who engaged early intensive behavioural intervention for two or more years can able to take part in integration placement in mainstream schools.
Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Learn 2 Learn on YouTube Find us on Google+